Data-in-Transit Encryption for MariaDB Xpand
Xpand supports SSL and authentication with the
Some security regulations require stronger protection of user passwords stored in the database. The
sha256_password plugin provides a more secure method of storing user password credentials in Xpand as compared to the default
mysql_native_password plugin. When a user account is configured to use the
sha256_password plugin, that user must then always connect using an SSL protected connection.
The instructions below provide steps for configuring Xpand for SSL encrypted connections, and also configure Xpand user accounts to use SHA256 password security along with SSL encrypted connections. To use this feature, use the instructions below to generate certificates and keys, copy them to all nodes, configure the database and users to use SSL when applicable (requires a mysql client 5.6.38 or higher).
For information on how to generate certificates and keys, see "Create Self-Signed Certificates and Keys with OpenSSL".
Xpand Configuration for SSL Encrypted Connections
To configure Xpand to use encrypted connections:
Create keys and certificates (using your choice of method) and copy them as the root user to every node:
shell> scp server-cert.pem root@hostname:/data/clustrix shell> scp server-key.pem root@hostname:/data/clustrix
On each node, transfer ownership of those files to the
shell> sudo chown xpand server-*.pem
Certificates and keys must be in the same location on every node.
Configure Xpand to use these certificates, keys, and SSL:
sql> SET GLOBAL ssl_cert = '/data/clustrix/server-cert.pem'; sql> SET GLOBAL ssl_key = '/data/clustrix/server-key.pem'; sql> ALTER CLUSTER RELOAD SSL; sql> SET GLOBAL ssl_enabled = TRUE;
ALTER CLUSTER RELOAD SSL validates the location of the certificates and keys. If this command fails, the
clustrix.log may include more detail.
Connecting from a client using an encrypted connections
The MariaDB client SSL parameters can be defined in
/etc/my.cnf.d/client.cnf or on the command line.
Sample entry in
[client-mariadb] ssl-ca=/user/.ssh/ca-cert.pem ssl-cert=/user/.ssh/client-cert.pem ssl-key=/user/.ssh/client-key.pem
Command-line example of specifying the cert and key:
shell> mysql --ssl-cert=/user/.ssh/client-cert.pem --ssl-key=/user/.ssh/client-key.pem -u username -h hostname -p
The MySQL client version must be 5.6.38, 5.7 or higher client.
If you are using the mysql 5.6.38 client, you must specify the cipher type:
shell> mysql --ssl-cipher=AES256-SHA -u username -h hostname -p
If you are using the mysql 5.7 client, there are no special options required:
shell> mysql username -h hostname -p
The output of s will show whether TLS is enabled:
and show as part of the output the type of encryption in use:
Cipher in use is AES256-SHA
This query will show the type of encryption used for all sessions:
sql> select * from system.sessions;
Setting Up Users
By default, passwords use
mysql_native_password. To change an existing users' password to use sha256 encryption:
sql> ALTER USER 'seymour'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH sha256_password BY 'foo';
To set it back to use
sql> ALTER USER 'seymour'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password by 'foo';
Create a new user using
sql> CREATE USER 'seymour2'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH sha256_password BY 'foo';
Caveats for SHA2 usage
Certificates and keys must exist on all nodes and be owned by the
Xpand does not support configuration a default authentication plugin other than
Xpand does not support RSA password encryption
Using encrypted connections have a performance overhead
The ssl options
subjectare not supported and generate syntax errors.
When deploying on MariaDB SkySQL, server-to-server communications are encrypted. For additional information, see "MariaDB SkySQL - Data-in-Transit Encryption.
When deploying on your own public cloud infrastructure, such as Amazon AWS or Google GCP, server-to-server communications may benefit from automatic encryption if the required conditions are met. AWS and GCP offer hardware-assisted encryption.