Upgrade to MariaDB Community Server 10.4 on Debian 9


These instructions detail the upgrade from a previous version of MariaDB Community Server to MariaDB Community Server 10.4 on Debian 9.

When MariaDB Community Server is upgraded, the old version needs to be uninstalled, and the new version needs to be installed.

Data Backup

Occasionally, issues can be encountered during upgrades. These issues can even potentially corrupt the database's data files, preventing you from easily reverting to the old installation. Therefore, it is generally best to perform a backup prior to upgrading. If an issue is encountered during the upgrade, you can use the backup to restore your MariaDB Server database to the old version. If the upgrade finishes without issue, then the backup can be deleted.

The instructions below show how to perform a backup using MariaDB Backup. For more information about backing up and restoring the database, please see the Recovery Guide.

  1. Take a full backup:

    $ sudo mariadb-backup --backup \
          --user=mariabackup_user \
          --password=mariabackup_passwd \

    Confirm successful completion of the backup operation.

  2. The backup must be prepared:

    $ sudo mariadb-backup --prepare \

    Confirm successful completion of the prepare operation.

  3. Backups should be tested before they are trusted.

Uninstall the Old Version

When upgrading to a new major release of MariaDB Community Server, it is necessary to remove the existing installation of MariaDB Community Server, before installing the new version of MariaDB Community Server. Otherwise, the package manager will refuse to install the new version of MariaDB Community Server.

Stop the MariaDB Server Process

Before the old version can be uninstalled, we first need to stop the current MariaDB Server process.

  1. Set the innodb_fast_shutdown system variable to 1:

    SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown = 1;
  2. Use XA RECOVER to confirm that there are no external XA transactions in a prepared state:


    Commit or rollback any open XA transactions before stopping the node for upgrade.

  3. Stop the server process using the systemctl command:

    $ sudo systemctl stop mariadb

Uninstall via APT (Debian/Ubuntu)

  1. Uninstall all of the MariaDB Community Server packages. Note that a wildcard character is used to ensure that all MariaDB Community Server packages are uninstalled.

    $ sudo apt-get remove "mariadb-*"

    Be sure to check that this wildcard does not unintentionally refer to any of your custom applications.

  2. Uninstall the Galera package as well.

    The name of the package depends on the specific version of MariaDB Community Server.

    When upgrading from MariaDB Community Server 10.4, the package is called galera-4:

    $ sudo apt remove galera-4

    When upgrading from MariaDB Community Server 10.3 or earlier, the package is called galera-3:

    $ sudo apt remove galera-3
  3. Before proceeding, verify that all MariaDB Community Server packages are uninstalled. The following command should not return any results:

    $ apt list --installed | grep -i -E "mariadb|galera"

Install the New Version

MariaDB Corporation provides a APT package repository for Debian 9.

Install via APT (Debian/Ubuntu)

  1. Configure the APT package repository.

    To configure APT package repositories:

    $ sudo apt install wget
    $ wget https://downloads.mariadb.com/MariaDB/mariadb_repo_setup
    $ echo "fd3f41eefff54ce144c932100f9e0f9b1d181e0edd86a6f6b8f2a0212100c32c mariadb_repo_setup" \
        | sha256sum -c -
    $ chmod +x mariadb_repo_setup
    $ sudo ./mariadb_repo_setup \
    $ sudo apt update
  2. Install MariaDB Community Server and package dependencies:

    $ sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-backup

    Installation of additional packages may be required for some plugins.

  3. Configure MariaDB.

    Installation only loads MariaDB Community Server to the system. MariaDB Community Server requires configuration before the database server is ready for use.

Starting the Server

MariaDB Community Server includes configuration to start, stop, restart, enable/disable on boot, and check the status of the Server using the operating system default process management system.

Debian 9 uses systemd. You can manage the Server process using the systemctl command:




sudo systemctl start mariadb


sudo systemctl stop mariadb


sudo systemctl restart mariadb

Enable during startup

sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Disable during startup

sudo systemctl disable mariadb


sudo systemctl status mariadb

Upgrading the Data Directory

MariaDB Community Server 10.4 ships with the mariadb-upgrade utility which can be used to identify and correct compatibility issues in the new version. After you upgrade your Server and start the server process, run this utility to upgrade the data directory:

$ sudo mariadb-upgrade


When MariaDB Community Server is up and running on your system, you should test that it is working and there weren't any issues during startup.

  1. Connect to the server using MariaDB Client using the root@localhost user account:

    $ sudo mariadb
    Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MariaDB connection id is 9
    Server version: 10.4.21-MariaDB MariaDB Server
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
    MariaDB [(none)]>

    The version of the server can be verified by checking the client's initial output.

  2. You can also verify the server version by checking the value of the version system variable with the SHOW GLOBAL STATUS statement:

    | Variable_name | Value           |
    | version       | 10.4.21-MariaDB |
  3. You can also verify the server version by calling the VERSION() function:

    | VERSION()       |
    | 10.4.21-MariaDB |