Comments - Global Transaction ID
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what is the behaviour when gtid_ignore_duplicates=OFF?
Then it is the DBA's responsibility to ensure that the same event will not arrive at the same slave through two different multi-source replication connections. Eg. if S1->S2->S4 and S1->S3->S4, then each S1 event could be applied twice on S4 unless something like ignore_server_ids is used on S4. Same as normal replication.
Given a replication domain is just by gtid_domain_id (looking at the earlier definition) is the server-id part of gtid taken into account with gtid_ignore_duplicates? (i.e. are 1-3-42 and 1-5-42 the same?)
Correct, 1-3-42 and 1-5-42 would be considered the same for the purpose of gtid_ignore_duplicates. So gtid_strict_mode=ON should be employed to avoid this.
How is the stream order affected by out-of-order parallel replication where the slave has its own slaves with log-slave-updates=1?
Stream order for transactions in the same replication domain is not affected, they will always be in the same order in the slave binlog as in the master binlog with respect to each other.
Transactions in different replication domains can appear in a different order with respect to each other in the slave binlog, compared to the order on the master.
Effectively, each replication domain is logged as an independent stream. GTID mode tracks the replication position separately for each stream.