Installing MariaDB using APT

For Debian and Ubuntu, it is highly recommended to install from the repositories, using apt-get, aptitude, or another package manager.

The easiest way to get things set up is to use our online repository configuration tool and follow the instructions it generates.

Import the GnuPG signing key

First import the gpg key we use to sign the repositories. This step only needs to be performed once on a given server. The key enables apt to verify the integrity of the packages it downloads.

The id of our signing key is 0xcbcb082a1bb943db and the full key fingerprint is:

1993 69E5 404B D5FC 7D2F E43B CBCB 082A 1BB9 43DB

The apt-key application is an easy way to import this key into apt:

sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xcbcb082a1bb943db

While importing signing key, either on ubuntu or debian system. The above command remains same.

Example:
localhost:~# apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xcbcb082a1bb943db
Executing: gpg --ignore-time-conflict --no-options --no-default-keyring --secret-keyring /tmp/tmp.ASyOPV87XC --trustdb-name /etc/apt/trustdb.gpg --keyring /etc/apt/trusted.gpg --primary-keyring /etc/apt/trusted.gpg --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xcbcb082a1bb943db
gpg: requesting key 1BB943DB from hkp server keyserver.ubuntu.com
gpg: key 1BB943DB: "MariaDB Package Signing Key <package-signing-key@mariadb.org>" imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1

Once the key is added you are ready to add the appropriate repository.

Add MariaDB to your sources.list

To easily generate the appropriate sources.list entries (also known as APT lines), use our online repository configuration tool.

In the tool, choose "debian" or "ubuntu", depending on which distribution you are using, and then choose the specific release, and then the version of MariaDB you want to install.

You can find out which release you are using with:

lsb_release -a

Once you have your sources.list entries, add them to your local /etc/apt/sources.list (e.g. with "sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list" or to a separate file under sources.list.d/ (e.g. with "sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mariadb.list".

You can also use the Software Sources tool to add the APT lines. This tool is found under the "Edit" menu in the Ubuntu Software Center. In the Synaptic package manager this tool is called "Repositories" and it is located under the "Settings" menu. After launching the tool choose the "Other Software" tab, click on the "Add..." button and paste in the APT line (once for each of the two lines).

Like adding the GPG key, this step only needs to be done once on a given server.

Installing MariaDB with apt-get

With the key and the APT lines in place you can now run:

sudo apt-get update

...to download the information apt needs to know to install MariaDB.

MariaDB can then be installed with your favorite package manager, for example:

sudo apt-get install mariadb-server

Installing TokuDB with apt-get

Instructions for installing TokuDB are on the How to Enable TokuDB in MariaDB page.

Installing MariaDB Galera Cluster with apt-get

The instructions for installing MariaDB Galera Cluster are virtually the same as for installing MariaDB. The setup of importing the signing key and creating the sources.list entry are both the same. The only difference is in the install step. Instead of installing the mariadb-server package, you install the mariadb-galera-server and galera packages, like so:

sudo apt-get install mariadb-galera-server galera

If the server already has the mariadb-server package installed, it will be automatically removed prior to installing mariadb-galera-server.

See the Galera section of the Knowledgebase for more information on MariaDB Galera Cluster.

Installation Issues

MariaDB starting with 5.5

Upgrading mariadb-server and mariadb-client packages

As noted in MDEV-4266, the mariadb-server and mariadb-client packages have a minor upgrade issue if you use 'apt-get install mariadb-server' or 'apt-get install mariadb-client' to upgrade them instead of the more common 'apt-get upgrade'. This is because those two packages depend on mariadb-server-5.5 and mariadb-client-5.5 with no specific version of those packages. For example, if you have the mariadb-server package installed, version 5.5.29 and you install version 5.5.30 of that package it will not automatically upgrade the mariadb-server-5.5 package to verstion 5.5.30 like you would expect because the 5.5.29 version of that package satisfies the dependency.

The mariadb-server and mariadb-client packages are virtual packages, they only exist to require the installation of the mariadb-server-5.5 and mariadb-client-5.5 packages, respectively. MariaDB will function normally with a, for example, version 5.5.30 version of the mariadb-server package and a version 5.5.29 version of the mariadb-server-5.5 package. No data is at risk. However, expected behavior is for 'apt-get install mariadb-server' to upgrade everything to the latest version (if a new version is available), so this is definitely a bug.

A fix is planned for this bug in a future version of MariaDB. In the mean time, when upgrading MariaDB, use 'apt-get upgrade' or 'apt-get install mariadb-server-5.5'.

MariaDB starting with 5.1

Version Mismatch Between MariaDB and Ubuntu/Debian Repositories

As mentioned here (and in MDEV-4080 and MDEV-3882) sometimes APT will refuse to install MariaDB. Or, if MariaDB is already installed, suggest the removal of MariaDB to apply an upgrade to the mysql-common or libmysqlclient packages. This happens whenever the version number of those two packages is higher in the distribution repositories than the versions in the MariaDB repositories. Most MariaDB packages have different names than their MySQL counterparts, but in order for upgrades from MySQL to MariaDB to be successful in APT, those two packages must be named the same. Because they have the same names, APT just checks the version numbers and tries to install what it considers to be the most recent.

It is rare for the version numbers of mysql-common or libmysqlclient to be higher in the official Ubuntu or Debian repositories than they are in the MariaDB repositories, but it has happened. Whenever it has it has been because of critical bug fix releases for bugs that existed in the version of MySQL in the distribution repositories but which had already been fixed in the version of MariaDB in the MariaDB repositories.

If a situation as described above exists when you try to install MariaDB you will get an error like this:

The following packages have unmet dependencies:
 mariadb-server : Depends: mariadb-server-5.5 but it is not going to be installed
E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.

There are three primary ways of fixing this issue:

  1. Specifying Specific Versions to Install
  2. Holding Packages
  3. Pinning the MariaDB Repository

Click on the links above to jump to directions for each (or simply scroll down).

Specifying Specific Versions to Install

A way to fix this is to specify the exact version of the two packages that you want to install. To do this, first determine the full version numbers of the affected packages. An easy way to do so is with 'apt-cache show':

apt-cache show mysql-common | grep Version
apt-cache show libmysqlclient18 | grep Version

For each of the above you will be given a list of versions. The ones in the MariaDB repositories will have "mariadb" in the version strings and are the ones you want. With the version numbers in hand you will be able to install MariaDB by explicitly specifying the version numbers like so:

apt-get install mariadb-server-5.5 mariadb-client-5.5 \
  libmysqlclient18=<version-number> \
  mysql-common=<version-number>

Replace the two instances of <version-number> in the example above with the actual version number of MariaDB that you want to install.

Holding Packages

After MariaDB is installed, and as long as the version number issue exists, an 'apt-get dist-upgrade' will try to remove MariaDB in order to install the "upgraded" libmysqlclient and mysql-common packages. To prevent this from happening you can hold them so that apt doesn't try to upgrade them. To do so, open a terminal, become root with 'sudo -s', and then enter the following:

echo libmysqlclient18 hold | dpkg --set-selections
echo mysql-common hold | dpkg --set-selections

The holds will prevent you from upgrading MariaDB, so when you want to remove the holds, open a terminal, become root with 'sudo -s', and then enter the following:

echo libmysqlclient18 install | dpkg --set-selections
echo mysql-common install | dpkg --set-selections

You will then be able to upgrade MariaDB as normal (e.g. with 'sudo apt-get update; sudo apt-get upgrade').

Pinning the MariaDB Repository

Another thing you can do is to pin the MariaDB repository that you use. This is done by creating a file with the '.pref' extension under '/etc/apt/preferences.d/' with the following contents:

Package: *
Pin: origin <mirror-domain>
Pin-Priority: 1000

Replace '<mirror-domain>' with the domain name of the MariaDB mirror you use. For example, 'ftp.osuosl.org'. With the pin file in place, packages from your MariaDB repository will have priority over packages from the system repositories.

Installing the .deb Files Manually

While it is not recommended, it is possible to download and install the packages manually (i.e. without a package manager like apt-get). Browse the directories below the repo/ directory on your closest mirror. The .deb files are in debian/pool/ and ubuntu/pool/, respectively.

Here are the commands we used on a Debian 5 amd64 box to install MariaDB 5.1.42 (other Debian-based distributions should be similar):

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libdbi-perl libdbd-mysql-perl psmisc
sudo dpkg --install mysql-common_5.1.42-mariadb73_all.deb
sudo dpkg --install libmariadbclient16_5.1.42-mariadb73_amd64.deb libmysqlclient16_5.1.42-mariadb73_amd64.deb \
mariadb-client_5.1.42-mariadb73_all.deb mariadb-client-5.1_5.1.42-mariadb73_amd64.deb mariadb-server_5.1.42-mariadb73_all.deb \
mariadb-server-5.1_5.1.42-mariadb73_amd64.deb

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