MariaDB starting with 10.5.1
mariadb-conv is a character set conversion utility for MariaDB and was added in MariaDB 10.5.1.
mariadb-conv [OPTION...] [FILE...]
mariadb-conv supports the following options:
|-f, --from=name||Specifies the encoding of the input.|
|-t, --to=name||Specifies the encoding of the output.|
|-c, --continue||Silently ignore conversion errors.|
|--delimiter=name||Treat the specified characters as delimiters.|
mariadb-conv exits whenever it encounters any conversion problems, for example:
- the input byte sequence is not valid in the source character set
- the character cannot be converted to the target character set
-c option makes
mariadb-conv ignore such errors and use the question mark '?' to replace bytes in bad input sequences, or unconvertable characters.
--delimiter=... option makes
mariadb-conv treat the specified characters as delimiters rather than data to convert, so the input is treated as a combination of:
- data chunks, which are converted according to the
- delimiters, which are not converted and are copied from the input to the output as is.
Converts the file
mariadb-conv -f latin1 -t utf8 file.latin1.txt
Convert the file
utf8, reading the input data from stdin.
mariadb-conv -f latin1 -t utf8 < file.latin1.txt
Using mariadb-conv in a pipe:
echo test | ./mariadb-conv -f utf8 -t ucs2 >file.ucs2.txt
As a side effect, mariadb-conv can be used to list MariaDB data directories in a human readable form. Suppose you create the following tables:
SET NAMES utf8; CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE t1 (a INT); CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE ß (a INT); CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE абв (a INT); CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE 桌子 (a INT);
The above makes the server create the following files in the MariaDB data directory:
@1j.frm @1j.ibd @firstname.lastname@example.org @email@example.com @g0@firstname.lastname@example.org @g0@email@example.com t1.frm t1.ibd
It's not precisely clear which file stores which table, because MariaDB uses a special table-name-to-file-name encoding.
This command on Linux (assuming an utf-8 console) can print the table list in a readable way::
ls | mariadb-conv -f filename -t utf8 --delimiter=".\n" ß.frm ß.ibd 桌子.frm 桌子.ibd абв.frm абв.ibd t1.frm t1.ibd
--delimiter=".\n" option is needed to make
mariadb-conv treat the dot character (delimiting the encoded table name from the file extension) and the new line character (delimiting separate lines) as delimiters rather than as the data to convert (otherwise the conversion would fail).
Windows users can use the following command to list the data directory in the ANSI text console:
dir /b | mariadb-conv -c -f filename -t cp850 --delimiter=".\r\n"
-toptions assume a Western machine.
-coption is needed to ignore conversion errors for Cyrillic and CJK characters.
--delimiter=additionally needs the carriage return character \r