SmartRouter is the query router of the SmartQuery framework. Based on the type of the query, each query is routed to the server or cluster that can best handle it.
For workloads where both transactional and analytical queries are needed, SmartRouter unites the Transactional (OLTP) and Analytical (OLAP) workloads into a single entry point in MaxScale. This allows a MaxScale client to freely mix transactional and analytical queries using the same connection. This is known as Hybrid Transactional and Analytical Processing, HTAP.
SmartRouter is configured as a service that either routes to other MaxScale routers or plain servers. Although one can configure SmartRouter to use a plain server directly, we refer to the configured "servers" as clusters.
For details about the standard service parameters, refer to the Configuration Guide.
One of the clusters must be designated as the
master. All writes go to the
master cluster, which for all practical purposes should be a master-slave
ReadWriteSplit. This document does not go into details about setting up
master-slave clusters, but suffice to say, that when setting up the ColumnStore
servers they should be configured to be slaves of a MariaDB server running an
The ReadWriteSplit documentation has more on master-slave setup.
Suppose we have a Transactional service like
[RWS-Row] type=service router=readwritesplit servers = row_server_1, row_server_2, ...
for which we have defined the listener
[RWS-Row-Listener] type=listener service=RWS-Row socket=/tmp/rws-row.sock
That is, that service can be accessed using the socket
The Analytical service could look like this
[RWS-Column] type = service router = readwritesplit servers = column_server_1, column_server_2, ... [RWS-Column-Listener] type = listener service = RWS-Column socket = /tmp/rws-col.sock
Then we can define the SmartQuery service as follows
[SmartQuery] type = service router = smartrouter targets = RWS-Row, RWS-Column master = RWS-Row [SmartQuery-Listener] type = listener service = SmartQuery port = <port>
Note that the SmartQuery listener listens on a port, while the Row and Column service listeners listen on Unix domain sockets. The reason is that there is a significant performance benefit when SmartRouter accesses the services over a Unix domain socket compared to accessing them over a TCP/IP socket.
A complete configuration example can be found at the end of this document.
Cluster selection - how queries are routed
SmartRouter keeps track of the performance, or the execution time, of queries to the clusters. Measurements are stored with the canonical of a query as the key. The canonical of a query is the sql with all user-defined constants replaced with question marks. When SmartRouter sees a read-query whose canonical has not been seen before, it will send the query to all clusters. The first response from a cluster will designate that cluster as the best one for that canonical. Also, when the first response is received, the other queries are cancelled. The response is sent to the client once all clusters have responded to the query or the cancel.
There is obviously overhead when a new canonical is seen. This means that queries after a MaxScale start will be slightly slower than normal. The execution time of a query depends on the database engine, and on the contents of the tables being queried. As a result, MaxScale will periodically re-measure queries.
The performance behavior of queries under dynamic conditions, and their effect on different storage engines is being studied at MariaDB. As we learn more, we will be able to better categorize queries and move that knowledge into SmartRouter.
LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILEis not supported.
- The performance data is not persisted. The measurements will be performed anew after each startup.
Complete configuration example
[maxscale] [row_server_1] type = server address = <ip> port = <port> [row_server_2] type = server address = <ip> port = <port> [Row-Monitor] type = monitor module = mariadbmon servers = row_server_1, row_server_2 user = <user> password = <password> monitor_interval = 2000ms [column_server_1] type = server address = <ip> port = <port> [Column-Monitor] type = monitor module = csmon servers = column_server_1 user = <user> password = <password> monitor_interval = 2000ms # Row Read write split [RWS-Row] type = service router = readwritesplit servers = row_server_1, row_server_2 user = <user> password = <password> [RWS-Row-Listener] type = listener service = RWS-Row socket = /tmp/rws-row.sock # Columnstore Read write split [RWS-Column] type = service router = readwritesplit servers = column_server_1 user = <user> password = <password> [RWS-Column-Listener] type = listener service = RWS-Column socket = /tmp/rws-col.sock # Smart Query router [SmartQuery] type = service router = smartrouter targets = RWS-Row, RWS-Column master = RWS-Row user = <user> password = <password> [SmartQuery-Listener] type = listener service = SmartQuery port = <port>