MariaDB starting with 10.1.1

MariaDB 10.1.1 merged the Facebook/Kakao defragmentation patch for defragmenting InnoDB tablespaces

Overview

When rows are deleted from an InnodDB table, the rows are simply marked as deleted and not physically deleted. The free space is not returned to the operating system for re-use.

Purge thread will physically delete index keys and rows, but the free space introduced is still not returned to operating system. This can lead to gaps on the page. If you have variable length rows, new rows may be larger than old rows and cannot make use of the available space.

A user may run OPTIMIZE TABLE or ALTER TABLE <table> ENGINE=InnoDB to reconstruct the table. Unfortunately running OPTIMIZE TABLE against an InnoDB table stored in the shared table-space file ibdata1 does two things:

  • Makes the table’s data and indexes contiguous inside ibdata1.
  • Increases the size of ibdata1 because the contiguous data and index pages are appended to ibdata1.

InnoDB defragmentation from 10.1.1

MariaDB 10.1 merges Facebook's defragmentation code prepared for MariaDB by Matt, Seong Uck Lee from Kakao. The only major difference to Facebook's code and Matt’s patch is that MariaDB does not introduce new literals to SQL and makes no changes to the server code. Instead, OPTIMIZE TABLE is used and all code changes are inside InnoDB/XtraDB storage engines.

The behaviour of OPTIMIZE TABLE is unchanged by default, and to enable this new feature, you need to set the innodb_defragment system variable to 1.

[mysqld]
...
innodb-defragment=1

No new tables are created and there is no need to copy data from old tables to new tables. Instead, this feature loads n pages (determined by innodb-defragment-n-pages) and tries to move records so that pages would be full of records and then frees pages that are fully empty after the operation.

A number of new system and status variables for controlling and monitoring the feature are introduced.

System variables

Status variables

Example

set @@global.innodb_file_per_table = 1;
set @@global.innodb_defragment_n_pages = 32;
set @@global.innodb_defragment_fill_factor = 0.95;
CREATE TABLE tb_defragment (
pk1 bigint(20) NOT NULL,
pk2 bigint(20) NOT NULL,
fd4 text,
fd5 varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (pk1),
KEY ix1 (pk2)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;
 
delimiter //;
create procedure innodb_insert_proc (repeat_count int)
begin
  declare current_num int;
  set current_num = 0;
  while current_num &lt; repeat_count do
    INSERT INTO tb_defragment VALUES (current_num, 1, REPEAT('Abcdefg', 20), REPEAT('12345',5));
    INSERT INTO tb_defragment VALUES (current_num+1, 2, REPEAT('HIJKLM', 20), REPEAT('67890',5));
    INSERT INTO tb_defragment VALUES (current_num+2, 3, REPEAT('HIJKLM', 20), REPEAT('67890',5));
    INSERT INTO tb_defragment VALUES (current_num+3, 4, REPEAT('HIJKLM', 20), REPEAT('67890',5));
    set current_num = current_num + 4;
  end while;
end//
delimiter ;//
commit;
 
set autocommit=0;
call innodb_insert_proc(50000);
commit;
set autocommit=1;

After these CREATE and INSERT operations, the following information can be seen from the INFORMATION SCHEMA:

select count(*) as Value from information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name = 'PRIMARY';
Value
313
 
select count(*) as Value from information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name = 'ix1';
Value
72
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_pages_freed');
count(stat_value)
0
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_page_split');
count(stat_value)
0
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_leaf_pages_defrag');
count(stat_value)
0
 
SELECT table_name, data_free/1024/1024 AS data_free_MB, table_rows FROM information_schema.tables 
  WHERE engine LIKE 'InnoDB' and table_name like '%tb_defragment%';
table_name data_free_MB table_rows
tb_defragment 4.00000000 50051
 
SELECT table_name, index_name, sum(number_records), sum(data_size) FROM information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name like 'PRIMARY';
table_name index_name sum(number_records) sum(data_size)
`test`.`tb_defragment` PRIMARY 25873 4739939
 
SELECT table_name, index_name, sum(number_records), sum(data_size) FROM information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name like 'ix1';
table_name index_name sum(number_records) sum(data_size)
`test`.`tb_defragment` ix1 50071 1051775

Deleting three-quarters of the records, leaving gaps, and then optimizing:

delete from tb_defragment where pk2 between 2 and 4;
 
optimize table tb_defragment;
Table	Op	Msg_type	Msg_text
test.tb_defragment	optimize	status	OK
show status like '%innodb_def%';
Variable_name	Value
Innodb_defragment_compression_failures	0
Innodb_defragment_failures	1
Innodb_defragment_count	4

Now some pages have been freed, and some merged:

select count(*) as Value from information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name = 'PRIMARY';
Value
0
 
select count(*) as Value from information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name = 'ix1';
Value
0
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_pages_freed');
count(stat_value)
2
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_page_split');
count(stat_value)
2
 
select count(stat_value) from mysql.innodb_index_stats 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and stat_name in ('n_leaf_pages_defrag');
count(stat_value)
2
 
SELECT table_name, data_free/1024/1024 AS data_free_MB, table_rows FROM information_schema.tables 
  WHERE engine LIKE 'InnoDB';
table_name data_free_MB table_rows
innodb_index_stats 0.00000000 8
innodb_table_stats 0.00000000 0
tb_defragment 4.00000000 12431
 
SELECT table_name, index_name, sum(number_records), sum(data_size) FROM information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name like 'PRIMARY';
table_name index_name sum(number_records) sum(data_size)
`test`.`tb_defragment` PRIMARY 690 102145
 
SELECT table_name, index_name, sum(number_records), sum(data_size) FROM information_schema.innodb_buffer_page 
  where table_name like '%tb_defragment%' and index_name like 'ix1';
table_name index_name sum(number_records) sum(data_size)
`test`.`tb_defragment` ix1 5295 111263

See Defragmenting unused space on InnoDB tablespace on the Mariadb.org blog for more details.

Comments

Comments loading...