It's important to give careful thought to the privileges associated with stored functions and stored procedures. The following is an explanation of how they work.

Creating stored routines

Altering stored routines

  • To make changes to, or drop, a stored routine, the ALTER ROUTINE privilege is needed. The creator of a routine is temporarily granted this privilege if they attempt to change or drop a routine they created, unless the automatic_sp_privileges variable is set to 0 (it defaults to 1).
  • The SUPER privilege is also required if statement-based binary logging is used. See Binary Logging of Stored Routines for more details.

Running stored routines

  • To run a stored routine, the EXECUTE privilege is needed. This is also temporarily granted to the creator if they attempt to run their routine unless the automatic_sp_privileges variable is set to 0.
  • The SQL SECURITY clause (by default DEFINER) specifies what privileges are used when a routine is called. If SQL SECURITY is INVOKER, the function body will be evaluated using the privileges of the user calling the function. If SQL SECURITY is DEFINER, the function body is always evaluated using the privileges of the definer account. DEFINER is the default. Thus, by default, users who can access the database associated with the stored routine can also run the routine, and potentially perform operations they wouldn't normally have permissions for.
  • The creator of a routine is the account that ran the CREATE FUNCTION or CREATE PROCEDURE statement, regardless of whether a DEFINER is provided. The definer is by default the creator unless otherwise specified.
  • The server automatically changes the privileges in the mysql.proc table as required, but will not look out for manual changes.

DEFINER clause

If left out, the DEFINER is treated as the account that created the stored routine or view. If the account creating the routine has the SUPER privilege, another account can be specified as the DEFINER.


This clause specifies the context the stored routine or view will run as. It can take two values - DEFINER or INVOKER. DEFINER is the account specified as the DEFINER when the stored routine or view was created (see the section above). INVOKER is the account invoking the routine or view.

As an example, let's assume a routine, created by a superuser who's specified as the DEFINER, deletes all records from a table. If SQL SECURITY=DEFINER, anyone running the routine, regardless of whether they have delete privileges, will be able to delete the records. If SQL SECURITY = INVOKER, the routine will only delete the records if the account invoking the routine has permission to do so.

INVOKER is usually less risky, as a user cannot perform any operations they're normally unable to. However, it's not uncommon for accounts to have relatively limited permissions, but be specifically granted access to routines, which are then invoked in the DEFINER context.

Also see


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