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MariaDB broadly supports 2 types of replication scenarios where changes are replicated to the other nodes (1) asynchronously (the classical MariaDB replication), and (2) synchronously (MariaDB Galera cluster). There is also a variant of async replication called semi-sync replication. MariaDB replication works on the same principal as MySQL. The changes from source server (or node) are logged in binary format and replicated to other node(s) where they are applied. You should be also find information about all these topics in MariaDB Knowledge base. There are also quite a few blogs covering them.