# optimizer_max_sel_arg_weight

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## Basics

As mentioned in the Range Optimizer, ranges on multiple key parts can create a combinatorial amount of ranges.

`optimizer_max_sel_arg_weight` setting is a limit to reduce the number of ranges generated by dropping restrictions on higher key parts if the number of ranges becomes too high.

## Combinatorial number of ranges

Let's reuse the example from the Range Optimizer page.

```create table t2 (
keypart1 int,
keypart2 varchar(100),
keypart3 int,
index idx(keypart1, keypart2, keypart3)
);
```
```select * from t2
where
keypart1 in (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10) and keypart2 in ('a','b', 'c') and keypart3 in (1,2,3,4);
```

Range optimizer will produce 10 * 3 * 4 = 120 ranges.

```select * from information_schema.optimizer_trace\G
```
```                    //...
"range_scan_alternatives": [
{
"index": "idx",
"ranges": [
"(1,a,1) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (1,a,1)",
"(1,a,2) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (1,a,2)",
"(1,a,3) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (1,a,3)",
"(1,a,4) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (1,a,4)",
"(1,b,1) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (1,b,1)",
//... # 114 lines omitted ...
"(3,b,3) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (3,b,3)",
"(3,b,4) <= (keypart1,keypart2,keypart3) <= (3,b,4)",
],
```

This number is fine but if your IN-list are thousands then the number of ranges can in the millions which may cause excessive CPU or memory usage.

## SEL_ARG graph

Internally, the Range Optimizer builds this kind of graph:

Vertical black lines connect adjacent "intervals" on the same key part. Red lines connect a key part to a subsequent key part.

To produce ranges, one walks this graph by starting from left most corner. Walking right "attaches" the ranges on one key part to another to form multi-part ranges. One must mind that Not all combinations produce multi-part ranges, though.

## Weight of SEL_ARG graph

How do we limit the number of ranges? We should remove the parts of SEL_ARG graph that describe ranges on big key parts. That way, we can still build ranges, although we will build fewer ranges that may contain more rows.

Due to the way the graph is constructed, we cannot tell how many ranges it would produce, so we introduce a parameter "weight" which is easy to compute and is proportional to the number of ranges we estimate to produce.

Here is how the weight is computed:

• The weight of subgraph3 is just the number of nodes, 4.
• The weight of subbraph2 the number of nodes for keypart2 (3), and the weight of subgraph1 multiplied by 3 since there are 3 references to it.
• The weight of subgraph1 is the number of nodes for keypart1 (10) plus the weight of subgraph2 multiplied by 10 since there are 10 references to it.