MariaDB starting with 10.6.0
From version 10.6.0, MariaDB supports the
In Oracle mode one can use just
ROWNUM() returns the current number of accepted rows in the
current context. It main purpose is to emulate the
pseudo column in Oracle. For MariaDB native applications we recommend the usage of LIMIT as it is easier to use and gives more predictable results than the usage of
The main difference between using
ROWNUM() to limit the rows in the result is that
LIMIT works on the result set while
works on the number of accepted rows (before any
GROUP BY clauses).
The following queries will return the same results:
SELECT * from t1 LIMIT 10; SELECT * from t1 WHERE ROWNUM() <= 10;
While the following may return differnt results based on in which orders the rows are found:
SELECT * from t1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10; SELECT * from t1 ORDER BY a WHERE ROWNUM() <= 10;
The only recommend way to use
ROWNUM to limit the number of returned rows and get predictable results is having the query in a sub query and test for
ROWNUM() in the outer query:
SELECT * FROM (select * from t1 ORDER BY a) WHERE ROWNUM() <= 10;
ROWNUM() can be used in the following context:
Used in other context
ROWNUM() will return 0.
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1,ROWNUM()),(2,ROWNUM()),(3,ROWNUM()); INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1),(2) returning a, ROWNUM(); UPDATE t1 SET row_num_column=ROWNUM(); DELETE FROM t1 WHERE a < 10 AND ROWNUM() < 2; LOAD DATA INFILE 'filename' into table t1 fields terminated by ',' lines terminated by "\r\n" (a,b) set c=ROWNUM();
In many cases where
ROWNUM() is used, MariaDB will use the same optimizations it uses with LIMIT.
LIMIT optimization is possible when using
ROWNUM in the following manner:
- When one is in a top level
ROWNUM()with a numerical constant using any of the following expressions:
ROWNUM()can be also be the right argument to the comparison function.
In the above cases,
LIMIT optimization can be done in the
- For the current sub query when the ROWNUM comparison is done on the top level:
SELECT * from t1 WHERE ROWNUM() <= 2 AND t1.a > 0
- For an inner sub query, when the upper level has only a
ROWNUM()comparison in the
SELECT * from (select * from t1) as t WHERE ROWNUM() <= 2
While MariaDB is trying to emulate Oracle's usage of
ROWNUM() as closes as possible, there are cases where the result is different:
- When the optimizer is finding rows in different order (because of different storage methods or optimization). This may also happen in Oracle if one adds a deletes an index, in which case the rows may be found in a different order.
Note that usage of
ROWNUM() in functions or stored procedures will use their own contex, not the callers context.
- MDEV-24089 support oracle syntax: rownum
- LIMIT clause