Binlogrouter

Binlogrouter

NOTE: The binlog router delivered with 2.5 is completely new and is not 100% backward compatible with the binlog router delivered with earlier versions of MaxScale.

The binlogrouter is a router that acts as a replication proxy for MariaDB master-slave replication. The router connects to a master, retrieves the binary logs and stores them locally. Slave servers can connect to MaxScale like they would connect to a normal master server. If the master server goes down, replication between MaxScale and the slaves can still continue up to the latest point to which the binlogrouter replicated to. The master can be changed without disconnecting the slaves and without them noticing that the master server has changed. This allows for a more highly available replication setup.

In addition to the high availability benefits, the binlogrouter creates only one connection to the master whereas with normal replication each individual slave will create a separate connection. This reduces the amount of work the master database has to do which can be significant if there are a large number of replicating slaves.

Differences Between Old and New Binlogrouter Implementations

The binlogrouter in MaxScale 2.5.0 is a new and improved version of the original binlogrouter found in older MaxScale versions. The new implementation contains most of the features that were in the original binlogrouter but some of them were removed as they were either redundant or not useful.

The major differences between the new and old binlog router are:

  • The list of servers where the database users for authentication are loaded must be explicitly configured with the cluster, servers or targets parameter.

  • The old binlog router had both server_id and master_id, the new only server_id.

  • No need to configure heartbeat and burst interval anymore as they are now automatically configured.

  • Traditional replication that uses the binary log name and file offset to start the replication process is not supported.

  • Semi-sync support is not implemented.

  • Binlog encryption is not implemented.

  • Secondary masters are not supported, but the functionality provided by select_master is roughly equivalent.

  • The new binlogrouter will write its own binlog files to prevent problems that could happen when the master changes. This causes the binlog names to be different in the binlogrouter when compared to the ones on the master.

The documentation for the binlogrouter in MaxScale 2.4 is provided for reference here.

Supported SQL Commands

The binlogrouter supports a subset of the SQL constructs that the MariaDB server supports. The following commands are supported:

  • CHANGE MASTER TO

  • The binlogrouter supports the same syntax as the MariaDB server but only the following values are allowed:

    • MASTER_HOST
    • MASTER_PORT
    • MASTER_USER
    • MASTER_PASSWORD
    • MASTER_USE_GTID
    • MASTER_SSL
    • MASTER_SSL_CA
    • MASTER_SSL_CAPATH
    • MASTER_SSL_CERT
    • MASTER_SSL_CRL
    • MASTER_SSL_CRLPATH
    • MASTER_SSL_KEY
    • MASTER_SSL_CIPHER
    • MASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT

    NOTE: MASTER_LOG_FILE and MASTER_LOG_POS are not supported as binlogrouter only supports GTID based replication.

  • STOP SLAVE

  • Stops replication, same as MariaDB.

  • START SLAVE

  • Starts replication, same as MariaDB.

  • RESET SLAVE

  • Resets replication. Note that the RESET SLAVE ALL form that is supported by MariaDB isn't supported by the binlogrouter.

  • SHOW BINARY LOGS

  • Lists the current files and their sizes. These will be different from the ones listed by the original master where the binlogrouter is replicating from.

  • PURGE { BINARY | MASTER } LOGS TO <filename>

  • Purges binary logs up to but not including the given file. The file name must be one of the names shown in SHOW BINARY LOGS. The version of this command which accepts a timestamp is not currently supported. Automatic purging is supported using the configuration parameter expire_log_duration.

    The files are purged in the order they were created. If a file to be purged is detected to be in use, the purge stops. This means that the purge will stop at the oldest file that a slave is still reading.

    NOTE: You should still take precaution not to purge files that a potential slave will need in the future. MaxScale can only detect that a file is in active use when a slave is connected, and requesting events from it.

  • SHOW MASTER STATUS

  • Shows the name and position of the file to which the binlogrouter will write the next replicated data. The name and position do not correspond to the name and position in the master.

  • SHOW SLAVE STATUS

  • Shows the slave status information similar to what a normal MariaDB slave server shows. Some of the values are replaced with constants values that never change. The following values are not constant:

    • Slave_IO_State: Set to Waiting for master to send event when replication is ongoing.

    • Master_Host: Address of the current master.

    • Master_User: The user used to replicate.

    • Master_Port: The port the master is listening on.

    • Master_Log_File: The name of the latest file that the binlogrouter is writing to.

    • Read_Master_Log_Pos: The current position where the last event was written in the latest binlog.

    • Slave_IO_Running: Set to Yes if replication running and No if it's not.

    • Slave_SQL_Running Set to Yes if replication running and No if it's not.

    • Exec_Master_Log_Pos: Same as Read_Master_Log_Pos.

    • Gtid_IO_Pos: The latest replicated GTID.

  • SELECT { Field } ...

  • The binlogrouter implements a small subset of the MariaDB SELECT syntax as it is mainly used by the replicating slaves to query various parameters. If a field queried by a client is not known to the binlogrouter, the value will be returned back as-is. The following list of functions and variables are understood by the binlogrouter and are replaced with actual values:

    • @@gtid_slave_pos, @@gtid_current_pos or @@gtid_binlog_pos: All of these return the latest GTID replicated from the master.

    • version() or @@version: The version string returned by MaxScale when a client connects to it.

    • UNIX_TIMESTAMP(): The current timestamp.

    • @@version_comment: Always pinloki.

    • @@global.gtid_domain_id: Always 0.

    • @master_binlog_checksum: Always CRC32.

    • @@session.auto_increment_increment: Always 1

    • @@character_set_client: Always utf8

    • @@character_set_connection: Always utf8

    • @@character_set_results: Always utf8

    • @@character_set_server: Always utf8mb4

    • @@collation_server: Always utf8mb4_general_ci

    • @@collation_connection: Always utf8_general_ci

    • @@init_connect: Always an empty string

    • @@interactive_timeout: Always 28800

    • @@license: Always BSL

    • @@lower_case_table_names: Always 0

    • @@max_allowed_packet: Always 16777216

    • @@net_write_timeout: Always 60

    • @@performance_schema: Always 0

    • @@query_cache_size: Always 1048576

    • @@query_cache_type: Always OFF

    • @@sql_mode: Always an empty string

    • @@system_time_zone: Always UTC

    • @@time_zone: Always SYSTEM

    • @@tx_isolation: Always REPEATABLE-READ

    • @@wait_timeout: Always 28800

  • SET

  • @@global.gtid_slave_pos: Set the position from which binlogrouter should start replicating. E.g. SET @@global.gtid_slave_pos="0-1000-1234,1-1001-5678"

  • SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '...'

  • Shows variables matching a string. The LIKE operator in SHOW VARIABLES is mandatory for the binlogrouter. This means that a plain SHOW VARIABLES is not currently supported. In addition, the LIKE operator in binlogrouter only supports exact matches.

    Currently the only variables that are returned are gtid_slave_pos, gtid_current_pos and gtid_binlog_pos which return the current GTID coordinates of the binlogrouter. In addition to these, the server_id variable will return the configured server ID of the binlogrouter.

Configuration Parameters

The binlogrouter is configured similarly to how normal routers are configured in MaxScale. It requires at least one listener where clients can connect to and one server from which the database user information can be retrieved. An example configuration can be found in the example section of this document.

datadir

Directory where binary log files are stored. By default the files are stored in /var/lib/maxscale/binlogs. NOTE: If you are upgrading from a version prior to 2.5, make sure this directory is different from what it was before, or move the old data.

server_id

The server ID that MaxScale uses when connecting to the master and when serving binary logs to the slaves. Default value is 1234.

net_timeout

Network connection and read timeout for the connection to the master. The value is specified as documented here. Default value is 10 seconds.

select_master

Automatically select the master server to replicate from. The default value is false.

When this feature is enabled, the master which binlogrouter will replicate from will be selected from the servers defined by a monitor cluster=TheMonitor. Alternatively servers can be listed in servers. The servers should be monitored by a monitor. Only servers with the Master status are used. If multiple master servers are available, the first available master server will be used.

If a CHANGE MASTER TO command is received while select_master is on, the command will be honored and select_master turned off until the next reboot. This allows the Monitor to perform failover, and more importantly, switchover. It also allows the user to manually redirect the Binlogrouter. The current master is "sticky", meaning that the same master will be chosen on reboot.

NOTE: Do not use the Monitor parameter auto_rejoin. This restriction will be lifted in a future version.

The GTID the replication will start from, will be based on the latest replicated GTID. If no GTID has been replicated, the router will start replication from the start. Manual configuration of the GTID can be done by first configuring the replication manually with CHANGE MASTER TO.

expire_log_duration

Duration after which a binary log file can be automatically removed. The default is 0, or no automatic removal. This is similar to the server system variable expire_log_days.

The duration is measured from the last modification of the log file. Files are purged in the order they were created. The automatic purge works in a similar manner to PURGE BINARY LOGS TO <filename> in that it will stop the purge if an eligible file is in active use, i.e. being read by a slave.

The duration can be specified as explained here.

expire_log_minimum_files

The minimum number of log files the automatic purge keeps. At least one file is always kept. The default setting is 2.

New installation

  1. Configure and start MaxScale.

  2. If you have not configured select_master=true (automatic master selection), issue a CHANGE MASTER TO command to binlogrouter.

mysql -u USER -pPASSWORD -h maxscale-IP -P binlog-PORT
CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="master-IP", master_port=master-PORT, master_user=USER, master_password="PASSWORD", master_use_gtid=slave_pos;
START SLAVE;
  1. Redirect each slave to replicate from Binlogrouter
mysql -u USER -pPASSWORD -h slave-IP -P slave-PORT
STOP SLAVE;
CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="maxscale-IP", master_port=binlog-PORT,
master_user="USER", master_password="PASSWORD", master_use_gtid=slave_pos;
START SLAVE;
SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G

Upgrading to version 2.5

Binlogrouter does not read any of the data that a version prior to 2.5 has saved. By default binlogrouter will request the replication stream from the blank state (from the start of time), which is basically meant for new systems. If a system is live, the entire replication data probably does not exist, and if it does, it is not necessary for binlogrouter to read and store all the data.

Before you start

  • Note that binlogrouter only supports GTID based replication.
  • Make sure that the configured data directory for the new binlogrouter is different from the old one, or move old data away. See datadir.
  • If the master contains binlogs from the blank state, and there is a large amount of data, consider purging old binlogs. See Using and Maintaining the Binary Log.

Deployment

The method described here inflicts the least downtime. Assuming you have configured version 2.5, and it is ready to go:

  1. Redirect each slave that replicates from Binlogrouter to replicate from the master.
mysql -u USER -pPASSWORD -h slave-IP -P slave-PORT
STOP SLAVE;
CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="master-IP", master_port=master-PORT,
master_user="USER", master_password="PASSWORD", master_use_gtid=slave_pos;
START SLAVE;
SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G
  1. Stop the old version of MaxScale, and start the new one. Verify routing functionality.

  2. Issue a CHANGE MASTER TO command, or use select_master.

mysql -u USER -pPASSWORD -h maxscale-IP -P binlog-PORT
CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="master-IP", master_port=master-PORT,
master_user=USER,master_password="PASSWORD", master_use_gtid=slave_pos;
  1. Run maxctrl list servers. Make sure all your servers are accounted for. Pick the lowest gtid state (e.g. 0-1000-1234,1-1001-5678) on display and issue this command to Binlogrouter:
STOP SLAVE
SET @@global.gtid_slave_pos = "0-1000-1234,1-1001-5678";
START SLAVE

NOTE: Even with select_master=true you have to set @@global.gtid_slave_pos if any binlog files have been purged on the master. The server will only stream from the start of time if the first binlog file is present. See select_master.

  1. Redirect each slave to replicate from Binlogrouter.
mysql -u USER -pPASSWORD -h slave-IP -P slave-PORT
STOP SLAVE;
CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="maxscale-IP", master_port=binlog-PORT,
master_user="USER", master_password="PASSWORD",
master_use_gtid=slave_pos;
START SLAVE;
SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G

Galera cluster

When replicating from a Galera cluster, select_master must be set to true, and the servers must be monitored by the Galera Monitor. Configuring binlogrouter is the same as described above.

The Galera cluster must be configured to use Wsrep GTID Mode.

The MariaDB version must be 10.5.1 or higher. The required GTID related server settings for MariaDB/Galera to work with Binlogrouter are listed here:

[mariadb]
log_slave_updates = ON
log_bin = pinloki       # binlog file base name. Must be the same on all servers
gtid_domain_id = 1001   # Must be different for each galera server
binlog_format = ROW

[galera]
wsrep_on = ON
wsrep_gtid_mode = ON
wsrep_gtid_domain_id = 42  # Must be the same for all servers

Example

The following is a small configuration file with automatic master selection. With it, the service will accept connections on port 3306.

[server1]
type=server
address=192.168.0.1
port=3306

[server2]
type=server
address=192.168.0.2
port=3306

[MariaDB-Monitor]
type=monitor
module=mariadbmon
servers=server1, server2
user=maxuser
password=maxpwd
monitor_interval=10s

[Replication-Proxy]
type=service
router=binlogrouter
cluster=MariaDB-Monitor
select_master=true
expire_log_duration=5h
expire_log_minimum_files=3
user=maxuser
password=maxpwd

[Replication-Listener]
type=listener
service=Replication-Proxy
protocol=MariaDBClient
port=3306

Limitations

  • Old-style replication with binlog name and file offset is not supported and the replication must be started by setting up the GTID to replicate from.

  • Only replication from MariaDB servers (including Galera) is supported.

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