Syntax

CREATE [OR REPLACE] [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name (create_definition,...) [table_options ]... [partition_options] CREATE [OR REPLACE] [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name [(create_definition,...)] [table_options ]... [partition_options] select_statement CREATE [OR REPLACE] [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name { LIKE old_table_name | (LIKE old_table_name) }

select_statement: [IGNORE | REPLACE] [AS] SELECT ... (Some legal select statement)

Description

Use the CREATE TABLE statement to create a table with the given name. You must have the CREATE privilege for the table or on the database to create a table.

In its most basic form, the CREATE TABLE statement provides a table name followed by a list of columns, indexes, and constraints. By default, the table is created in the default database. Specify a database with db_name.tbl_name. If you quote the table name, you must quote the database name and table name separately as `db_name`.`tbl_name`. This is particularly useful for CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, because it allows to create a table into a database, which contains data from other databases. See Identifier Qualifiers.

If a table with the same name exists, error 1050 results. Use IF NOT EXISTS to suppress this error and issue a note instead. Use SHOW WARNINGS to see notes.

Use the TEMPORARY keyword to create a temporary table that is only available to your current session. Temporary tables are dropped when the your session ends. Temporary table names are specific to your session. They may conflict with other temporary tables from other sessions or shadow names of non-temporary tables. A temporary table can have the same name as a non-remporary table which is located in the same database. In that case, their name will reference the temporary table when used in SQL statements. You must have the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege on the database to create temporary tables.

Use the LIKE clause instead of a full table definition to create a table with the same definition as another table, including columns, indexes, and table options.

The CREATE TABLE statement automatically commits the current transaction, except when using the TEMPORARY keyword.

MariaDB starting with 5.3

Microsecond precision can be between 0-6. If no precision is specified it is assumed to be 0, for backward compatibility reasons.

MariaDB starting with 10.0.8

The OR REPLACE syntax was added in 10.0.8.

Table Definitions

create_definition: { col_name column_definition | index_definition | CHECK (expr) }

column_definition: data_type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT default_value] [AUTO_INCREMENT] [UNIQUE [KEY] | [PRIMARY] KEY] [COMMENT 'string'] [COLUMN_FORMAT {FIXED|DYNAMIC|DEFAULT}] [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY|DEFAULT}] [reference_definition] | data_type [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expression) {VIRTUAL | PERSISTENT} [UNIQUE [KEY]] [COMMENT 'string']

Each definition either creates a column in the table or specifies and index or constraint on one or more columns. See Indexes below for details on creating indexes.

Create a column by specifying a column name and a data type, optionally followed by column options. See Data Types for a full list of data types allowed in MariaDB.

Use the NULL or NOT NULL options to specify that values in the column may or may not be NULL, respectively. By default, values may be NULL. See also NULL Values in MariaDB.

Specify a default value using the DEFAULT clause. The default value will be used if you INSERT a row without specifying a value for that column, or if you specify DEFAULT for that column. You cannot usually provide an expression or function to evaluate at insertion time. You must provide a constant default value instead. The one exception is that you may use CURRENT_TIMESTAMP as the default value for a TIMESTAMP column to use the current timestamp at insertion time.

Use AUTO_INCREMENT to create a column whose value can can be set automatically from a simple counter. You can only use AUTO_INCREMENT on a column with an integer type. The column must be a key, and there can only be one AUTO_INCREMENT column in a table. If you insert a row without specifying a value for that column (or if you specify 0, NULL, or DEFAULT as the value), the actual value will be taken from the counter, with each insertion incrementing the counter by one. You can still insert a value explicitly. If you insert a value that is greater than the current counter value, the counter is set based on the new value. An AUTO_INCREMENT column is implicitly NOT NULL. Use LAST_INSERT_ID to get the AUTO_INCREMENT value most recently used by an INSERT statement.

Use UNIQUE KEY (or just UNIQUE) to specify that all values in the column must be distinct from each other. Unless the column is NOT NULL, there may be multiple rows with NULL in the column. Use PRIMARY KEY (or just KEY) to make a column a primary key. A primary key is a special type of a unique key. There can be at most one primary key per table, and it is implicitly NOT NULL.

Specifying a column as a primary or unique key creates an index on that column. Specifying a key in the column definition is equivalent to specifying a single-column key separately. See Indexes below.

You can provide a comment for each column using the COMMENT clause. Use the SHOW FULL COLUMNS statement to see column comments.

To define virtual columns (from MariaDB 5.2), you can specify the virtual column's type: VIRTUAL or PERSISTENT. The default is VIRTUAL, which means that the column is calculated on the fly when a command names it; PERSISTENT means that the value is physically stored in the table. The AS keyword makes clear that the column is virtual, but you can also use the GENERATED ALWAYS keyword. The expression must be deterministic. For a complete description about virtual columns and their limitations, see virtual columns.

Indexes

index_definition: {INDEX|KEY} [index_name] [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ... | {FULLTEXT|SPATIAL} [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ... | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ... | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] [index_type] (index_col_name,...) [index_option] ... | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY [index_name] (index_col_name,...) reference_definition

index_col_name: col_name [(length)] [ASC | DESC]

index_type: USING {BTREE | HASH | RTREE}

index_option: KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value | index_type | WITH PARSER parser_name

reference_definition: REFERENCES tbl_name (index_col_name,...) [MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE] [ON DELETE reference_option] [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option: RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION

INDEX and KEY are synonyms.

Index names are optional, if not specified an automatic name will be assigned. Index name are needed to drop indexes and appear in error messages when a constraint is violated.

Each storage engine supports some or all index types. Different types are optimized for different kind of operations:

  • BTREE is the default type, and normally is the best choice. It is supported by all storage engines. It can be used to compare a column's value with a value using the =, >, >=, <, <=, BETWEEN, and LIKE operators. BTREE can also be used to find NULL values. Searches against an index prefix are possible.
  • HASH is only supported by the MEMORY storage engine. HASH indexes can only be used for =, <=, and >= comparisons. It can not be used for the ORDER BY clause. Searches against an index prefix are not possible.
  • RTREE is the default for SPATIAL indexes, but if the storage engine does not support it BTREE can be used.

Index columns names are listed between parenthesis. After each column, a prefix length can be specified. If no length is specified, the whole column will be indexed. ASC and DESC can be specified for compatibility with are DBMS's, but have no meaning in MariaDB.

The UNIQUE keyword means that the index will not accept duplicated values, except for NULLs. An error will raise if you try to insert duplicate values in a UNIQUE index.

For UNIQUE keys, PRIMARY KEYs and FOREIGN KEYs, you can specify a name for the constraint, using the CONSTRAINT keyword. That name will be used in error messages.

For the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE index option, see the table options below. This option can be specified at table level or at index level. Note that InnoDB ignores it at index level, although SHOW CREATE TABLE may report it for each index. With InnoDB, specifying a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE different from 0 at table level, implies ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED.

The WITH PARSER index option only applies to FULLTEXT indexes and contains the fulltext parser name. The fulltext parser must be an installed plugin.

Use the SPATIAL or FULLTEXT keywords to create geometric or fulltext indexes.

For FOREIGN KEYs, a reference definition must be provided. First, you have to specify the name of the target table and a column or a column list which must be indexed and whose values must match to the foreign key's values. The MATCH clause is accepted to improve the compatibility with other DBMS's, but has not meaning in MariaDB. The ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses specify what must be done when a DELETE (or a REPLACE) statements deletes a rows, and when an UPDATE statement modifies a rows, respectively, and a matching row exists in the other table. The following options are allowed:

  • RESTRICT: The delete/update operation is not performed.
  • CASCADE: The delete/update operation is performed in both tables.
  • SET NULL: The fields matching to the foreign key are set to NULL, in the row which is in the other table.
  • NO ACTION: The operation is performed normally, as if there was not foreign key.

See foreign keys for details.

The standard SET DEFAULT option is currently implemented only for the PBXT storage engine, which is disabled by default and no longer maintained. It sets the other table's row fields to their DEFAULT value.

Table Options

For each individual table you create (or alter), you can set some table options. The general syntax for setting options is:

<OPTION_NAME> = <option_value>, [<OPTION_NAME> = <option_value> ...]

The equal sign is optional.

Some options are supported by the server and can be used for all tables, no matter what storage engine they use; other options can be specified for all storage engines, but have a meaning only for some engines. Also, engines can extend CREATE TABLE with new options.

If the IGNORE_BAD_TABLE_OPTIONS SQL_MODE is enabled, wrong table options generate a warning; otherwise, they generate an error.

table_option: [STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name | AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1} | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name | COMMENT [=] 'string' | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string' | DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory' | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1} | INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory' | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST } | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value | MAX_ROWS [=] value | MIN_ROWS [=] value | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT} | PAGE_CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1} | PASSWORD [=] 'string' | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT|PAGE} | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1} | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1} | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY|DEFAULT}] | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

[STORAGE] ENGINE specifies a storage engine for the table. If this option is not used, the default storage engine is used instead. That is, the storage_engine session option value if it is set, or the value specified for the --default-storage-engine mysqld startup options, or InnoDB. If the specified storage engine is not installed and active, the default value will be used, unless the NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION SQL MODE is set (default since MariaDB 10.0). This is only true for CREATE TABLE, not for ALTER TABLE. For a list of storage engines that are present in your server, issue a SHOW ENGINES.

AUTO_INCREMENT specifies the initial value for the AUTO_INCREMENT primary key. This works for MyISAM, Aria, InnoDB/XtraDB, MEMORY, and ARCHIVE tables. You can change this option with ALTER TABLE, but in that case the new value must be higher than the highest value which is present in the AUTO_INCREMENT column. If the storage engine does not support this option, you can insert (and then delete) a row having the wanted value - 1 in the AUTO_INCREMENT column.

AVG_ROW_LENGTH is the average rows size, and is only useful for tables using the FIXED format. MyISAM uses MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH to decide the maximum size of a table (default: 256TB, or the maximum file size allowed by the system).

[DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET (or [DEFAULT] CHARSET) is used to set a default character set for the table. This is the character set used for all columns where an explicit character set is not specified. If this option is omitted or DEFAULT is specified, database's default character set will be used. See Setting Character Sets and Collations for details on setting the character sets.

CHECKSUM (or TABLE_CHECKSUM) can be set to 1 to maintain a live checksum for all table's rows. This makes write operations slower, but CHECKSUM TABLE will be very fast. This option is only supported for MyISAM and Aria tables.

[DEFAULT] COLLATE is used to set a default collation for the table. This is the collation used for all columns where an explicit character set is not specified. If this option is omitted or DEFAULT is specified, database's default option will be used. See Setting Character Sets and Collations for details on setting the collations

COMMENT is a comment for the table. Maximum length is 60 characters. Also used to define table parameters when creating a Spider table.

CONNECTION is used to specify a server name or a connection string for a Spider, CONNECT, Federated or FederatedX table.

DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY were only supported for MyISAM and Aria, before MariaDB 5.5. Since 5.5, DATA DIRECTORY is also supported by InnoDB (if the innodb_file_per_table server system variable is enabled), but only in CREATE TABLE, not in ALTER TABLE. So, carefully choose a path for InnoDB tables at creation time, because it cannot be changed without dropping and re-creating the table. These options specify the paths for data files and index files, respectively. If these options are omitted, the database's directory will be used to store data files and index files. Note that these table options do not work for partitioned tables (use the partition options instead), or if the server has been invoked with the --skip-symbolic-links startup option. To avoid the overwriting of old files with the same name that could be present in the directories, you can use the --keep_files_on_create option (an error will be issued if files already exist). These options are ignored if the NO_DIR_IN_CREATE SQL_MODE is enabled (useful for replication slaves). Also note that symbolic links cannot be used for InnoDB tables.

DELAY_KEY_WRITE is supported by MyISAM and Aria, and can be set to 1 to speed up write operations. In that case, when data are modified, the indexes are not updated until the table is closed. Writing the changes to the index file altogether can be much faster. However, note that this option is applied only if the delay_key_write server variable is set to 'ON'. If it is 'OFF' the delayed index writes are always disabled, and if it is 'ALL' the delayed index writes are always used, disregarding the value of DELAY_KEY_WRITE.

INSERT_METHOD is only used with MERGE tables. This option determines in which underlying table the new rows should be inserted. If you set it to 'NO' (which is the default) no new rows can be added to the table (but you will still be able to perform INSERTs directly against the underlying tables). FIRST means that the rows are inserted into the first table, and LAST means that thet are inserted into the last table.

KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is used to determine the size of key blocks, in bytes or kilobytes. However, this value is just a hint, and the storage engine could modify or ignore it. If KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is set to 0, the storage engine's default value will be used. Using it with an InnoDB table will also result in that table being compressed - see XtraDB/InnoDB Storage Formats for limitations and warnings with this usage.

MIN_ROWS and MAX_ROWS let the storage engine know how many rows you are planning to store as a minimum and as a maximum. These values will not be used as real limits, but they help the storage engine to optimize the table. MIN_ROWS is only used by MEMORY storage engine to decide the minimum memory that is always allocated. MAX_ROWS is used to decide the minimum size for indexes.

PACK_KEYS can be used to determine whether the indexes will be compressed. Set it to 1 to compress all keys. With a value of 0, compression will not be used. With the DEFAULT value, only long strings will be compressed. Uncompressed keys are faster.

PAGE_CHECKSUM is only applicable to Aria tables, and determines whether indexes and data should use page checksums for extra safety.

PASSWORD is unused.

RAID_TYPE is an obsolete option, as the raid support has been disabled since MySQL 5.0.

ROW_FORMAT specifies the format for the data file. Possible values are engine-dependent. For MyISAM formats are: FIXED, DYNAMIC; COMPRESSED can only be set by the myisampack command line tool. For Aria formats are: PAGE, FIXED, DYNAMIC. For InnoDB/XtraDB, formats are: COMPACT, REDUNDANT, COMPRESSED, DYNAMIC. Other storage engines do not support this option. See MyISAM Storage Formats, Aria Storage Formats and XtraDB/InnoDB Storage Formats for more details.

STATS_AUTO_RECALC is available only in MariaDB 10.0+. It indicates whether to automatically recalculate persistent statistics (see STATS_PERSISTENT, below) for an InnoDB table. If set to 1, statistics will be recalculated when more than 10% of the data has changed. When set to 0, stats will be recalculated only when an ANALYZE TABLE is run. If set to DEFAULT, or left out, the value set by the innodb_stats_auto_recalc system variable applies.

STATS_PERSISTENT is available only in MariaDB 10.0+. It indicates whether the InnoDB statistics created by ANALYZE TABLE will remain on disk or not. It can be set to 1 (on disk), 0 (not on disk, the pre-MariaDB 10 behavior), or DEFAULT (the same as leaving out the option), in which case the value set by the innodb_stats_persistent system variable will apply. Persistent statistics stored on disk allow the statistics to survive server restarts, and provide better query plan stability.

TRANSACTIONAL is only applicable for Aria tables. In future Aria tables created with this option will be fully transactional, but currently this provides a form of crash protection.

UNION must be specified when you create a MERGE table. This option contains a comma-separated list of MyISAM tables which are accessed by the new table. The list is enclosed between parenthesis. Example: UNION = (t1,t2)

Partitions

partition_options: PARTITION BY { [LINEAR] HASH(expr) | [LINEAR] KEY(column_list) | RANGE(expr) | LIST(expr) } [PARTITIONS num] [SUBPARTITION BY { [LINEAR] HASH(expr) | [LINEAR] KEY(column_list) } [SUBPARTITIONS num] ] [(partition_definition [, partition_definition] ...)]

partition_definition: PARTITION partition_name [VALUES {LESS THAN {(expr) | MAXVALUE} | IN (value_list)}] [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name] [COMMENT [=] 'comment_text' ] [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir'] [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir'] [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows] [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows] [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name] [NODEGROUP [=] node_group_id] [(subpartition_definition [, subpartition_definition] ...)]

subpartition_definition: SUBPARTITION logical_name [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name] [COMMENT [=] 'comment_text' ] [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir'] [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir'] [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows] [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows] [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name] [NODEGROUP [=] node_group_id]

If the PARTITION BY clause is used, the table will be partitioned. A partition method must be explicitly indicated for partitions and subpartitions. Partition methods are:

  • [LINEAR] HASH creates a hash key which will be used to read and write rows. The partition function can be any valid SQL expression which returns an INTEGER number. Thus, it is possible to use the HASH method on an integer column, or on functions which accept integer columns as an argument. However, VALUES LESS THAN and VALUES IN clauses can not be used with HASH. An example:
CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT, b CHAR(5), c DATETIME)
    PARTITION BY HASH ( YEAR(c) );

[LINEAR] HASH can be used for subpartitions, too.

  • [LINEAR] KEY is similar to HASH, but the index has an even distribution of data. Also, the expression can only be a column or a list of columns. VALUES LESS THAN and VALUES IN clauses can not be used with KEY.
  • RANGE partitions the rows using on a range of values, using the VALUES LESS THAN operator. VALUES IN is not allowed with RANGE. The partition function can be any valid SQL expression which returns a single value.
  • LIST assignes partitions based on a table's column with a restricted set of possible values. It is similar to RANGE, but VALUES IN must be used for at least 1 columns, and VALUES LESS THAN is disallowed.

Only HASH and KEY can be used for subpartitions, and they can be [LINEAR].

It is possible to define up to 1024 partitions and subpartitions.

The number of defined partitions can be optionally specified as PARTITION count. This can be done to avoid specifying all partitions individually. But you can also declare each individual partition and, additionally, specify a PARTITIONS count clause; in the case, the number of PARTITIONs must equal count.

CREATE ... SELECT

You can create a table containing data from other tables using the CREATE ... SELECT statement. Columns will be created in the table for each field returned by the SELECT query.

You can also define some columns normally and add other columns from a SELECT. You can also create columns in the normal way and assign them some values using the query, this is done to force a certain type or other field characteristics. The columns that are not named in the query will be placed before the others. For example:

CREATE TABLE test (a INT NOT NULL, b CHAR(10)) ENGINE=MyISAM
    SELECT 5 AS b, c, d FROM another_table;

Remember that the query just returns data. If you want to use the same indexes, or the same columns attributes ([NOT] NULL, DEFAULT, AUTO_INCREMENT) in the new table, you need to specify them manually. Types and sizes are not automatically preserved if no data returned by the SELECT requires the full size, and VARCHAR could be converted into CHAR. The CAST() function can be used to forcee the new table to use certain types.

Aliases (AS) are taken into account, and they should always be used when you SELECT an expression (function, arithmetical operation, etc).

If an error occurs during the query, the table will not be created at all.

If the new table has a primary key or UNIQUE indexes, you can use the IGNORE or REPLACE keywords to handle duplicate key errors during the query. IGNORE means that the newer values must not be inserted an identical value exists in the index. REPLACE means that older values must be overwritten.

If the columns in the new table are more than the rows returned by the query, the columns populated by the query will be placed after other columns. Note that if the strict SQL_MODE is on, and the columns that are not names in the query do not have a DEFAULT value, an error will raise and no rows will be copied.

Concurrent inserts are not used during the execution of a CREATE ... SELECT.

If the table already exists, an error similar to the following will be returned:

ERROR 1050 (42S01): Table 't' already exists

If the IF NOT EXISTS clause is used and the table exists, a note will be produced instead of an error.

To insert rows from a query into an existing table, INSERT ... SELECT can be used.

CREATE OR REPLACE

The CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE syntax was added in MariaDB 10.0.8 to make replication more robust if it has to rollback and repeat statements such as CREATE ... SELECT on slaves.

CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE table_name (a int);

is basically the same as:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS table_name;
CREATE TABLE table_name (a int);

with the following exceptions:

  • If table_name was locked with LOCK TABLES it will continue to be locked after the statement.
  • Temporary tables are only dropped if the TEMPORARY keyword was used. (With DROP TABLE, temporary tables are preferred to be dropped before normal tables).

Things to be aware of with CREATE OR REPLACE

  • The table is dropped first (if it existed), after that the CREATE is done. Because of this, if the CREATE fails, then the table will not exist anymore after the statement. If the table was used with LOCK TABLES it will be unlocked.
  • One can't use OR REPLACE<<fixed>> together with <<fixed>>IF EXISTS.
  • Slaves in replication will by default use CREATE OR REPLACE when replicating CREATE statements that don''t use IF EXISTS. This can be changed by setting the variable slave-ddl-exec-mode to STRICT.

Examples

create table if not exists test (
a bigint auto_increment primary key,
name varchar(128) charset utf8,
key name (name(32))
) engine=InnoDB default charset latin1;

This example shows a couple of things:

  • Usage of IF NOT EXISTS; If the table already existed, it will not be created. There will not be any error for the client, just a warning.
  • How to create a PRIMARY KEY that is automatically generated.
  • How to specify a table-specific character set and another for a column.
  • How to create an index (name) that is only partly indexed (to save space).

See also

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