mysql_upgrade is a tool that checks and updates your tables to the latest version.


mysql_upgrade [--force] [--user=# --password --host=hostname --port=# --socket=#
--protocol=tcp|socket|pipe|memory --verbose] OTHER_OPTIONS]

You should run mysql_upgrade after upgrading from one major MySQL/MariaDB release to another, such as from MySQL 5.0 to MariaDB 5.1 or MariaDB 10.0 to MariaDB 10.1. It is also recommended that you run mysql_upgrade after upgrading from a minor version, like MariaDB 5.5.40 to MariaDB 5.5.41, or even after a direct "horizontal" migration from MySQL 5.5.40 to MariaDB 5.5.40. If calling mysql_upgrade was not necessary, it does nothing.

On Windows Server 2008 or newer, mysql_upgrade needs to be run with administrator privileges.

It is recommended to make a backup of all the databases before running mysql_upgrade.

The following groups are read from the my.cnf files: [mysql_upgrade] and [client].

The following options to handle option files may be given as the first argument:

--print-defaultsPrint the program argument list and exit.
--no-defaultsDon't read default options from any option file.
--defaults-file=filenameOnly read default options from the given file filename.
--defaults-extra-file=filenameRead the file filename after the global files are read.

Main arguments are:

-?, --helpDisplay this help message and exit.
--basedir=pathOld option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
--character-sets-dir=pathOld option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
--compress=nameOld option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
--datadir=nameOld option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
-# [name], --debug[=name]For debug builds, output debug log.
--debug-checkCheck memory and open file usage at exit.
-T, --debug-infoPrint some debug info at exit.
--default-character-set=nameOld option accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
-f, --forceForce execution of mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MariaDB.
-h, --host=nameConnect to MariaDB on the given host.
-p, --password[=name]Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given, it's solicited on the command line (which should be considered insecure). You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
-P, --port=namePort number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in order of preference, my.cnf, the MYSQL_TCP_PORT environment variable, /etc/services, built-in default (3306).
--protocol=nameThe protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe, memory).
--silentPrint less information.
-S, --socket=nameFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
--sslEnable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with other flags).
--ssl-ca=nameCA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
--ssl-capath=nameCA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
--ssl-cert=nameX509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).
--ssl-cipher=nameSSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).
--ssl-key=nameX509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).
--ssl-crl=nameCertificate revocation list (implies --ssl).
--ssl-crlpath=nameCertificate revocation list path (implies --ssl).
--ssl-verify-server-certVerify server's "Common Name" in its cert against hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by default.
-t, --tmpdir=nameDirectory for temporary files.
-s, --upgrade-system-tablesOnly upgrade the system tables in the mysql database. Tables in other databases are not checked or touched.
-u, --user=nameUser for login if not current user.
-v, --verboseDisplay more output about the process, using it twice will print connection arguments; using it 3 times will print out all CHECK, RENAME and ALTER TABLE commands used during the check phase; using it 4 times (added in MariaDB 10.0.14) will also write out all mysqlcheck commands used.
-V, --versionOutput version information and exit.
-k, --version-checkRun this program only if its 'server version' matches the version of the server to which it's connecting check. Note: the 'server version' of the program is the version of the MariaDB server with which it was built/distributed. (Defaults to on; use --skip-version-check to disable.)
--write-binlogAll commands including those run by mysqlcheck are written to the binary log. Enabled by default. Use --skip-write-binlog when commands should not be sent to replication slaves.

"mysql_upgrade" is mainly a framework to call mysqlcheck. mysql_upgrade works by doing the following operations:

# Find out path to datadir
echo "show show variables like 'datadir'" | mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --auto-repair --databases mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases --fix-db-names --fix-table-names --write-binlog
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases --auto-repair --write-binlog

The connect options given to mysql_upgrade are passed along to mysqlcheck and mysql.

The mysql_fix_privilege_tables script is not actually called; it's included as part of mysql_upgrade.

If you have a problem with mysql_upgrade, try run it in very verbose mode:

mysql_upgrade --verbose --verbose other-options

Differences between mysql_upgrade in MariaDB and MySQL

This is as of MariaDB 5.1.50:

  • MariaDB will convert long table names properly.
  • MariaDB will convert InnoDB tables (no need to do a dump/restore or ALTER TABLE).
  • MariaDB will convert old archive tables to the new 5.1 format.
  • "mysql_upgrade --verbose" will run "mysqlcheck --verbose" so that you get more information of what is happening. Running with 3 times --verbose will in MariaDB 10.0 print out all CHECK, RENAME and ALTER TABLE commands executed.
  • More descriptive output.

Speeding up mysql_upgrade

- If you are sure that all your tables are up to date with the current version, then you can run mysql_upgrade ---upgrade-system-tables, which will only fix your system tables in the mysql database to be compatible with the latest version.

The main reason to run mysql_upgrade on all your tables is to allow it to check that:

  • There has not been any change in table formats between versions
  • If some of the tables are using an index for which we have changed sort order.

If you are 100% sure this applies to you, you can just run mysql_upgrade with the ---upgrade-system-tables option.

Symptoms of not having run mysql_upgrade when it was needed

  • Errors in the error log that some system tables doesn't have all needed columns.
  • Updates or searches on may not find the record.
  • CHECKSUM TABLE may report the wrong checksum for MyISAM or Aria tables.

To fix issues like this, run mysql_upgrade, mysqlcheck, CHECK TABLE and if needed REPAIR TABLE on the wrong table.

See also


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